This chapter deals with the issueofland tenure, which has been identified by the research coordinators as one of the major institutional problems in Benin. It deals more specifically with the recent land reformthat was enactedby the 2013 Code Foncier et Domanial (Land and Domain Code). The orientation of this chapter is significantly different from the others, both in its purpose and approach. It is not so much a question of proposing an institutional diagnosis of the sectorandhighlighting desirable areas for reform, as it is of analysing an ongoing reform process. In accordance with the terms of reference, this chapter deals with the political economy of the reform. It deals with the reform’s political and economic stakes, the groups of actors and interests which pushedit, those which are opposed to it, and thosewhich seek to shape it for theirownbenefit. It also provide a detailed history of the reform process.