When access to renewable natural resources is limited, the strategies societies develop to respond to changing contexts often result in greater social inequality and degradation of the natural resource base. In order to take account of different kinds of uncertainty and avoid the ecological pitfalls and poverty traps associated with land issues, the commons approach recommends that development practitioners involve user groups in the collaborative design, monitoring and evaluation of landscape-based projects. This entails identifying the issues that arise when securing holders’ rights to land and the resources it provides, and examining how social and ecological justice is achieved.
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